A. K. Das, A. Ghosh, I. M. Khaymovich,  “Robust non-ergodicity of ground state in the β ensemble” (2024)


In various chaotic quantum many-body systems, the ground states show non-trivial athermal behavior despite the bulk states exhibiting thermalization. Such athermal states play a crucial role in quantum information theory and its applications. Moreover, any generic quantum many-body system in the Krylov basis is represented by a tridiagonal Lanczos Hamiltonian, which is analogous to the matrices from the β ensemble, a well-studied random matrix model with level repulsion tunable via the parameter β. Motivated by this, here we focus on the localization properties of the ground and anti-ground states of the β ensemble. Both analytically and numerically, we show that both the edge states demonstrate non-ergodic (fractal) properties for β∼O(1) while the typical bulk states are ergodic. Surprisingly, the fractal dimension of the edge states remain three time smaller than that of the bulk states irrespective of the global phase of the β ensemble. In addition to the fractal dimensions, we also consider the distribution of the localization centers of the spectral edge states, their mutual separation, as well as the spatial and correlation properties of the first excited states.


Physics Review B